Food
Glossary

We know that it is often overwhelming trying to keep up with the latest super foods, so we wanted to find a simple way to bring to life what some of the world's best foods have to offer you. We hope you find this guide useful and there is something missing please do get in touch and let us know! We expect this list to go on growing over time!

Acai

The Acai berry is found in the Amazon and is highly perishable so is mostly found as a frozen pulp in Europe. High in antioxidants.

Almond Milk

An alternative source of calcium to cow’s milk that can be low in calories and is free of cholesterol, lactose and saturated fat. We recommend the unsweetened variety, free from additives and preservatives.

Almonds

A great source of fibre, unsaturated fat and are full of B vitamins and essential minerals manganese, magnesium and copper. Regularly eaten they can help lower cholesterol and with almost no carbohydrate content will help release energy more slowly.

Amaranth

Native to Mexico, this plant can be eaten as both a grain or vegetable. High in protein and packed full of essential amino acids and B Vitamins, Amaranth can help lower cholesterol, although the peppery taste may take some getting used to!

Amino Acids

These are the building blocks for protein in the body. They give cells their structure, help the body transport and store nutrients, and are essential for healing wounds. Amino Acids are well-known for repairing tissue, especially in the muscles, bones, hair and skin. Good whole food can help provide the eight essential Amino Acids which the body does not create itself.

Apples

Although lower than some fruits in vitamins and minerals, the humble Apple is packed with phenolic phytonutrients that have powerful antioxidant properties. They can also have protective effects against cancer and heart disease, as well as being a reliable source of fibre.

Apricots

A sweet Apricot is full of vitamin A, C and Beta-carotene – essential for good vision and general well being, whilst also providing a strong antioxidant.

Asparagus

A very good source of fibre, folate, vitamins A, C, E and K, as well as chromium, a trace mineral that regulates blood sugar and the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein.

Aubergine

A good source of folate and fibre, the Aubergine (or Eggplant) also contains moderate levels of potassium, B-vitamins and manganese. However, be aware that when fried the Aubergine can soak up excessive amounts of oil.

Avocado

Full of healthier monounsaturated fat that can help lower bad LDL cholesterol, Avocados contain valuable levels of Vitamin C, K, B6, Niacin and folate. They have an extremely high fibre content which can help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease.

Banana

The humble Banana is packed full of potassium, essential for heart function and healthy blood pressure that leads to a lower risk of heart attacks and strokes. A great source of dietary fibre and B6.

Basil

The essential oils in sweet basil provide potent anti-oxidants and BCP, which is a natural anti-inflammatory compound.

Beetroot

A powerful aid for liver disorders, the purpose pigment betacyanin in Betroot helps the liver process toxins such as alcohol much more efficiently. A good source of iron and folate, as well as being proven to improve performance during exercise.

Black Beans

The Black Bean’s fiber, potassium, folate, vitamin B6 and phytonutrient content, coupled with its lack of cholesterol, all support heart health. Black Beans are also brilliant source of B vitamins for healthy muscles, nerves and energy release.

Blackberries

The rich dark colour of this fruit indicates its high antioxidant properties – helping protect against free radicals. Full of vitamins and essential dietary fibre that support bowel movement and digestive health.

Blueberries

The Blueberry has one of the highest antioxidant levels measured in any food, containing flavanols, tanning and resveratol which is thought to combat cognitive decline. The fibre, folate, vitamin and B6 content and absence of cholesterol in Blueberries supports heart health. Studies show that eaten regularly, Blueberries can lower cholesterol and blood fat levels in general.

Brazil Nuts

The Brazil nut is actually a seed and contains a high level of saturated fat. They also contain extremely high levels of selenium, an essential mineral and antioxidant that can help eliminate free radicals and support the immune system to function properly.

Broccoli

Uncooked Broccoli is packed full of Vitamin C and contains high levels of Vitamin A and B, as well as folate-vital which is important when planning a baby or when pregnant. It also has high mineral levels Calcium, Iron and Manganese. The vitamins and minerals decline when cook, so raw or a light steam is ideal.

Buckwheat

Buckwheat is a relation of the rhubarb family and not a type of wheat. It contains the full range of essential amino acids, B vitamins and minerals. It also contains Rutin, an antioxidant that has the ability to strengthen blood vessels and can help with circulation. Buckwheat is gluten free.

Cabbage

For Cabbage to be at its most nutritious it should be eaten raw or cooked until tender. It is an excellent source of fibre and Vitamin K, B6, A & C, folate manganese, potassium and magnesium. Also a great source of beneficial sulphur compounds that can reduce inflammation by  encouraging white blood cell activity.

Cacao

Raw chocolate – over 1500 active chemicals that have an amazing impact on our health. A dense source of magnesium, which helps regulate the hearts rhythm and maintains a healthy blood pressure. Chocolate also comes with a huge concentration of antioxidants that protect the blood vessels from damage.

Calcium

Calcium is essential in the body for building and maintaining strong teeth and bones, as well as muscle function. Calcium is found in dark green leafy vegetables, dried figs, whole almonds, sesame seeds, dairy produce and canned sardines.

Carbohydrates

Foods classed as Carbohydrates provide the body with energy. Unless a quick energy boost is needed it is healthier to eat slow releasing carbohydrates that do not spike the blood sugar level and release their energy slowly. Including oats, brown rice, pulses and whole grains.

Carrots

Carrots are packed full of Vitamin A, which is essential for vision, with a deficiency leading to visual impairment.

Cashews

Cashews contain proanthocyanidins which can help the fight against cancerous cells. They are full of magnesium which is vital for bone health and rich in vitamins riboflavin, as well as thiamine and niacin which help protect against anemia.

Cauliflower

Cauliflower is rich in folate, potassium, Vitamin K, C & B6 as well as a great source of fibre. Like Broccoli, it should not be overcooked and it has a similar phytonutrient content with a broad range of sulphur containing compounds that can reduce the risk of cancer.

Celeriac

A low calorie root vegetable that is closely related to celery. It is a diuretic and a good source of fibre, calcium, iron and Vitamin K and C.

Cherries

Cherries’ red colouring comes from the anthocyanins found in the skins. These may have anti-cancer attributes and they contain good levels of fibre and Vitamin C.

Chia Seeds

Chia Seeds are a powerful little superfood. Full of fibre, protein, omega-3, calcium, Manganese and Magnesium, whilst also being low in calories. These seeds have good antioxidant levels and most of their carbohydrate content is fibre.

Chickpeas

Chickpeas are full of high quality protein that contains essential amino acids. A rich source of folate with a reasonable calcium level, their insoluble fibre content can help reduce the threat of colon cancer.

Chlorella

Chlorella is an algae related to seaweed and a great source of vitamins, protein and minerals. It may help reduce blood pressure and help our immune response including wound healing. Great to mix in a smoothie!

Cinnamon

Recent studies show that Cinnamon could be useful for those with Type 2 diabetes as its components can help insulin to metabolise sugar and maintain lower blood sugar levels. It can also positively impact blood fats by reducing ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol.

Cocoa

The Cocoa bean has high levels of antioxidants, tryptophan and amine compounds which are metabolised into neurotransmitters. This may explain why eating chocolate can make you feel good. These benefits are best seen in chocolate products with a high cocoa content.

Coconut

Coconuts are over 50% fat and most of it is saturated. However, the fat is made up of MCT’S (medium chain triglycerides) that are absorbed without the metabolism that other saturated fats need. Studies show that this may in fact help utilise existing fat stores for energy and therefore support weight loss.

Cranberries

Cranberries are well known to benefit urinary tract health with compounds within the berries sticking to bacteria and stop them binding to the urinary tract. Potentially the juice also supports oral health by picking up bacteria that would otherwise stick to gums and teeth.

Cumin

Cumin is reputed to have anti-inflammatory benefits most likely from the quinone compound found in the seed. It can help stimulate digestion and aid indigestion, its flavonoids may also have anti-cancer properties. It is best used with grain based dishes and soups.

Dates

A rich source of the complex sugar beta glucan, this sugar has a great reputation for removing LDL cholesterol from the body as it chemically binds with it and carries it out of the body. Beta glucan also can create a rise in white blood cells which is great for the immune system.

Dried Apricots

Dried fruit remains high in Vitamin C and is a good source of Iron that is boosted during the drying process. Purchasing organic dried apricots can be beneficial as they will not contain sulphites.

Dulse

Dulse is a sea vegetable that can be soaked and added to salads. As with other sea vegetables it is rich in Iodine and other important minerals such as iron, potassium, manganese and phosphorus.

Echinacea

A herb that can boost the immune system to combat sore throats, headaches and, when taken regularly, even the common cold.

Eggs

Eggs are low in saturated fat and free range organic eggs can provide a good source of Vitamin A, B and D, as well as Iron.

Fats

Fats are essential as they provide a very concentrated form of energy whilst releasing twice as many calories as protein and carbs – this is why eating too much fat can make you gain weight. The key is make monounsaturated fats a regular part of your diet, and if need be, keep saturated fat an occasional part.

Fennel

A herb famous for combating digestive complaints. Digestive issues often involve irregular episodes of contraction in the gut. Fennel contains a complex chemical known as antispasmodics which help relax the muscular walls of the gut.

Fibre

Fibre is also a carbohydrate but is mostly indigestible by the body. It plays a crucial role in maintaining good health. Soluble fibre like lentils and apples are partially digested and fermented by gut bacteria and help keep the gut healthy. Insoluble fibre, Pasta or brown rice, for example, absorb water and bulk out the stools – helping reduce the risk of bowel and colon cancer.

Figs

Figs are an awesome source of fibre and packed full of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and manganese. Dried figs are equally as nutritious as fresh figs.

Fish

Wild fish can be a good source of Omega-3, B-vitamins, calcium and selenium.

Flaxseed

Flaxseed is one of the best plant-based sources of Omega 3 fats and is also very high in fibre. The phytoestrogen (Lignan) is converted by bacteria in the lower intestine into active compounds that tell the body how to control areas such as the hormonal and reproductive process, alongside bone density. Flaxseed is best ground so as to not to pass directly through the body.

Folate (Folic Acid)

Folate helps protect against foetal abnormalities, with the best source being dark, green and leafy vegetables.

Garlic

Garlic is packed with organosulphur compounds that, when chopped or crushed, turn to allicin and have anti-inflammatory  effects whilst also helping to reduce the production of cholesterol by the liver cells and prevent clogging. Allicin can also change the metabolism of carcinogens, which potentially reduces cancer risk.

Ginger

Ginger is a true anti-inflamatory food. The essential oils that give Ginger its spicy taste form part of its inflamtion stopping chemistry. Great for managing skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis when taken regularly.

Goji Berries (Wolfberries)

Goji berries are native to East Asia and full of Vitamin C, Calcium and Iron. They also contain Phytonutrients & Antioxidants and are considered anti-inflammatory with nutrients useful in the fight against cancers.

Green Tea

As with herbal teas, it is best to buy organic and loose Green Tea, which is packed with polyphenols and flavanoids that act as powerful antioxidants. The amino acid L-theanine can also help focus and brain function. Green Tea is noted for its ability to boost the metabolic rate and support physical performance.

Hemp Seeds

Hemp Seeds provide the perfect balance of essential fatty acids. Omega 3,6 and 9 offer superb anti-inflamatory support when taken in the correct ratios (twice as much Omega 3 to 6) and Hemp provides this exact ratio as well as being a great source of zinc.

Herbal Tea

It’s always best to buy organic and ideally loose tea rather than teabags. Peppermints menthol can help soothe a cold and aid post meal digestion. Rosehip is high in Vitamin C and can help ward off colds. Rosemary is good for stimulating the brain and providing focus. Camomile helps calm the nerves and induce sleep.

Himalayan Salt

Himalayan Salt provides an essential mineral Sodium for the body, which regulates blood volume and pressure. Bathing in Himalayan Salt can help detoxify the body by osmosis, with toxins released from the body and healthy minerals absorbed through the skin.

Iron

Iron is needed for the production of red blood cells & helping transporting oxygen to the lungs. Iron is also involved in converting blood sugar to energy, helping the immune system function effectively & normal cognitive functioning.

Jalepeno

These fiery peppers are packed with the chemical capsaicin which helps with weight loss by burning the fat away. Jalepenoes also help with nasal congestion and are full of anti-oxidants.

Jerusalem Artichokes

Also known as Sunchokes, they contain have high levels of Iron and Potassium which is essential for overall health and can help to reduce heart disease. Pact full of protein, they are a great vegetable to add to stews or soups.

Kale

Kale is packed full of Vitamin A and C, as well as very high levels of Vitamin K, whilst having a great antioxidant profile. Kale’s sulphur containing compounds including indole-3-carbinol have been shown to affect oestrogen metabolism and could help stop organ cancers. Kale should only be cooked lightly and chopping or rubbing can help release the benefits.

Kiwi Fruit

Kiwis are high in fibre and full of Vitamin C, with seeds containing Omega 3 and alpha-linoleic acid. When eaten regularly, Kiwi Fruit may also have a blood thinning effect.

Kombu (Kelp)

Kombu is a brown sea vegetable, rich in Iodine, calcium, potassium and Iron, which can be added to hot food and soups.

Leeks

Leeks are a brilliant source of Vitamin K, C and A, B6 and folate. They also contain a good level of iron, calcium, manganese, magnesium and copper. You are advised to eat the green when possible as this is where a lot of the nutrients lie.

Lemon

Lemons as with other citrus fruits are full of Vitamin C and fibre. They also contain potassium, calcium and antioxidants in the form of flavanones. The flavanone hesperidin have been shown in some studies to reduce neuro-degenerative risk.

Lentil

Lentils are packed with nutrients and are especially rich in folate & B vitamins and the minerals zinc, magnesium, copper, phosphorus and manganese. They are also low fat, a rich source of protein and packed with insoluble and soluble fibre. When eaten with rice, Lentils can provide all of the essential amino acids.

Maca

A root from the radish family, Maca is packed full of Vitamin B, C and E, as well as Calcium, Iron, Zinc, Magensium and amino acids. It is known to help boost libido, balance hormones and increase energy. Maca is not suitable for those who are pregnant or lactating.

Magnesium

Magnesium is essential for healthy muscles, normal growth and healthy teeth and bones.

Mango

Mangoes are full of phytochemicals and Vitamin A, E and C. They also contain high levels of antioxidants including betacarotene, alpha carotene and lutein, as well as a good range of amino acids. Buy organic mangoes to enjoy the full benefit of the nutrient-packed skin.

Matcha

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Meat

Meat is well known as a source of protein that contains all of the essential amino acids, B-vitamins, zinc and iron. Organic, free range and lean cuts of meat eaten occasionally can be included in a healthy diet, but are not essential.

Mint

Mint contains menthol and can be used to help with indigestion and as a decongestant when bunged up with a cold. It also adds to oral health by inhibiting harmful bacterial growth inside the mouth.

Miso

Miso is a mixture of fermented Soya beans, wheat or rice or barley, with salt and water. High in isoflavones, minerals and B-vitamins, it can also be very high in sodium from the salt content, so although some studies show cancer reducing properties, it should be eaten sparingly.

Nori

As with other sea vegetables, Nori has significant levels of the minerals Iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and the essential mineral iondine.

Nut milk

An alternative to cows milk which is normally made from water with Almonds, Coconut or Cashew. It is advisable to aim for the unsweetend options without additives and preservatives.

Oats

Oats are a gluten-free whole grain that is high in A and B Vitamins, Iron, manganese and fibre, as well as antioxidants and is also relatively high in protein for a grain. A slow realising carbohydrate, Oats can keep you feeling fuller for longer and also aid weight loss.

Olives

Both Green and Black Olives contain high levels of healthier monounsaturated fat – which helps support a healthy heart. They are also high in Calcium and Copper, as well as Vitamins A and E.

Omega 3

These fatty acids are essential building blocks for brain and eye tissue during pregnancy or early life. Omega 3 can help reduce heart disease risk, auto-immune diseases and age related mental decline, whilst also improving joint health.

Onions

Like Garlic, Onions have organosulphur compounds that change to allicin when chopped. They also contain flavonols including quercetin, which is an active compound that has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties.

Oregano

Oregano is a species of mint which is high in antioxidants due to its content of phenolic and flavonoids.

Papaya (Pawpaw)

Papaya is native to South America and full of folate, vitamin C and antioxidants in the form of beta-cryptoxanthin a carotenoid and vitamin A precursor.

Parsley

Parsley has diuretic properties with its essential oils containing a mild irritant to the kidneys that increases urinary output. This helps the body to remove waste products from the joints much more quickly. This can also assist with water retention, but must be avoided if you have a kidney infection.

Peanut / Peanut Butter

Despite their name, Peanuts are in fact a pulse. They are high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat, essential minerals, folate and antioxidants. As part of a healthy diet, Peanuts should be unsalted, or if in butter form, without sugar and additives.

Pears

Pears have a high water content, contain Vitamin C and potassium and are also high in insoluble and soluble fibre.

Peas

Peas are packed with fibre and protein, whilst also being a good source of vitamins and minerals. Due to phytonutrients in Peas they are also considered anti-inflammatory and have antioxidant benefits.

Plums

Plums contain anthocyanin pigments within their rich colouring. They may help reduce heart disease due to proanthocyanidins and other phytochemicals within these pigments.

Pomegranate

Pomegranates are believed to have anti viral and anti bacterial benefits, being especially good for the mouth. Their antioxidants, polyphenol in particular, may help protect cells from oxidative stress and reduce blood pressure.

Potassium

Potassium is vital for regulating blood pressure, nerve transmission and water balance within the body.

Potatoes

Despite what you may think, Potatoes are not the enemy! When steamed or baked in their skin they provide energy, folate, Vitamin B6 and potassium.

Protein

Proteins are vital for repairing, maintaining and helping the growth of every cell in the body. They give us the building blocks to make hormones, enzymes and of course muscle. Proteins are made up of 20 amino acids – 8 of these we can only get from food.

Pumpkin Seeds

Pumpkin Seeds are a good source of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fats, which are both important for a healthy heart. They are packed with Iron and an excellent source of Magnesium, Manganese and Phosphorus. They may also help improve mood and sleep patterns due to high levels of Tryptophan, which produces Serotonin and Melatonin.

Quinoa

This grain-like seed packs some powerful protein power (8 grams per cup) and is one of the only seeds or grains to provide all nine essential amino acids . Quinoa contains twice as much fibre as most grains and is also full of anti-oxidants.

Rice

Brown Rice specifically is rich in fibre and and great for those wanting to balace blood sugar levels, as it is a slow release sugar food. It is also full of antioxidants that help protect the inner lining of blood vessels against damage.

Rosemary

Rosemary is thought to offer protection from free radical damage and studies suggest benefits in fighting brain degenerative disease. This is due to the rosmarinic and carnosic acid it contains.

Sage

Sage contains a variety of flavonoids and phytosterols, and it has been found to ease menopausal symptoms with studies suggesting it may aid Alzheimers management.

Selenium

Selenium is an antioxidant that is vital in the fight against free radical damage.

Shiitake mushrooms

Mushrooms are high fibre, with the Shiitake variety containing beta-glucan in the form of lentinan and studies suggesting that these mushrooms have anti-tumour and immune regulation properties. They can also help reduce cholesterol levels and have anti fungi and viral properties.

Soya/Tofu/Tempah

Soya in bean form, or in curd form as Tofu or Tempah, is a great source of protein containing all of the essential amino acids. High in fibre and a good source of Omega-3, Organic soya products are the ideal in the form of Tofu, Tempah or beans. Soya can be an allergen for some people and should only make up part of a healthy varied diet.

Spinach

Spinach is a great source of vitamins and minerals and is best eaten raw or very lightly steamed. It is also high in Vitamin K which is vital for the blood clotting process and a good source of A,C, E and folate. Packed with anti-oxidants that can help fight cancer and beta-carotene, Spinach is a good source of Iron when eaten with Vitamin C, which helps improve its absorption.

Spirulina

Spirulina is an algae high in Omega-3 and beta-carotene, which also offers a high concentration of protein. It is packed with vitamins and minerals and may help lower cholesterol.

Sprouts (Alfafa, Mung, Lentil, Chickpea)

As these seeds, pulses and grains germinate they also significantly improve their nutritional values. With high levels of B Vitamins with good bio-availability, Sprouts are a useful addition to salads.

Strawberries

Strawberries are high in vitamin C and manganese, which is vital for bone health. They also contain the anti-oxidant Fisetin which is anti-inflammatory and has cancer fighting properties.

Sunflower Seeds

Sunflower Seeds are dense in Zinc, which leads to great benefits for the skin, and are also full of anti-inflamatory activity. They reduce the level of cholesterol in the digestive tract by blocking its reabsorbtion and removing it via the bowel.

Sweet Potato

The Sweet Potato is packed with fibre, B6 and has reasonable levels of calcium and Vitamin C. The darker the colour of the Sweet Potato, the higher the levels of anti-oxidant beta-carotene.

Swiss Chard

The leaves of Swiss Chard, like spinach, are packed with Vitamin K and it should be cooked only lightly. It is also rich in vitamin C and A, as well as anti-oxidants.

Thyme

Thyme is a strong antiseptic due to its thymol content and can help relieve sore throats when in tincture form.

Tomatoes

Tomatoes are a superb source of lycopene, which is a cancer fighting anti-oxidant. The bio availability of lycopene actually increases when cooked or in paste form. However, raw tomatoes are also a great source of vitamins, meaning you are free to enjoy them both ways.

Turmeric

From the same family as Ginger, Turmeric can prevent clotting and help to protect a little more against heart attacks, whilst also being a potent anti-inflamatory. Its yellow pigment helps to control inflamation comparable to Nurofen. It is also believed to protect the liver from damage.

Vegetables

When it comes to vegetables, the darker the leaf, the more antioxidants the vegetable will offer to battle free radicals. Spinach, Kale, Chard are packed full of goodness compared to something like Iceberg lettuce.

Vitamin A (Retinol in animals/betacarotene in plants)

Vitamin A is required for vision, skin and tissue repair, as well as bone growth. Betacarotene from plants additionally protects the immune system and acts as an antioxidant.

Vitamin B1 & B2 (Thiamin & Riboflavin)

Vitamin B1 promotes growth, increases mental ability and is essential for energy production. Vitamin B2 supports tissue repair and also is needed for energy production.

Vitamin B12 (Cyano-cobalamin)

B12 is a bacteria already present in the body and a healthy lifestyle will help maintain its production. B12 can be found in meat and dairy products, although heat and antibiotics could destroy it, so ideally buy organic where possible. B12 can also be found as a supplement and may be present in the plant based foods when eaten raw and organic.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Vitamin B3 supports the release of energy and is vital for healthy skin, proper circulation whilst also promoting a healthy digestive system.

Vitamin B6

As with all B Vitamins, B6 helps the body convert food into fuel and support healthy skin, hair, eyes and the liver. B6 also helps the body create hormones serotonin and norepinephrine – which influence mood and melatonin and regulate the body’s clock.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Vitamin C fights infection and builds the immune system. It is needed for Iron absorption and promotes healthy teeth, skin and bones.

Vitamin D (Calciferol)

Most people should get their Vitamin D from sunlight. Supplements and fortified foods can also support Vitamin D intake which is vital for tooth and bone formation, whilst also helping the body absorb to Calcium and Phosphorus.

Vitamin E (tocopherols)

Vital for maintaining cells, Vitamin E is an antioxidant that helps circulation and promotes healthy skin.

Walnuts

Walnuts are packed with B Vitamins, including B7 which contributes to stronger hair and glowing healthy skin with protection against free radicals. Walnuts can also help promote sperm quality within men and, as with other antixodiants, help fight cancer.

Watercress

Watercress is another cruciferous vegetable like broccoli or kale which has sulphur compounds that help fight cancer. It contains anti-oxidants and is packed with potassium, manganese, calcium & vitamins A, C and K.

Watermelon

Watermelons are low calorie, as a result of being made up of 90% water! They are a great source of lycopene that can help reduce prostate cancer risks and Beta-cryptoxanthin which the body can convert into Vitamin A. For the full nutritional absorption, eat Melon on an empty stomach or at least by itself.

Wheatgrass

Wheatgrass contains good levels of Vitamin A and E and potentially B12. When juiced and taken on an empty stomach, its chlorophyll content may be able to bind with toxins and help the liver remove them.

Wild Rice

A member of the grass family; Wild Rice is packed with all eight essential amino acids and is a good source of fibre and lysine as well as being gluten free and low calorie.

Zinc

Zinc is vital for reproduction and a deficiency may lower sperm quality. It is also necessary for wound healing, a healthy immune system and general growth.